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Making a Difference:
Educational Practices That Work!

February 5 - 7, 2014 | Hershey Lodge and Convention Center

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4. Fundamental Facilitation Practices for Teamwork

02/05/14, Hershey, PA
RHONDA TYREE: Welcome. We're working on what words, concepts, images come to mind when you hear the word, Facilitation. Facilitation, what do you see with some themes. See any strands, themes of like
AUDIENCE MEMBER: I see a lot of ING.
RHONDA TYREE: I lot of ING, action. Other strands?
AUDIENCE MEMBER: There's some movement.
RHONDA TYREE: A lot of movement.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: There's some positive things.
RHONDA TYREE: A lot of positive things.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: Leadership skills.
RHONDA TYREE: A lot of leadership skills, in what ways?
AUDIENCE MEMBER: More like it goes a [inaudible] I think they cover a lot these skills, you know, in bringing--working woth [inaudible] by listening. All of those words, you know, brings to mind some
RHONDA TYREE: Good leaders are able to do a lot of those things when it comes to listening and engaging, whether they're in a formal role or not. So even if you're a member at the table and you don't
of [inaudible]
have a formal designation as you're the facilitator, you're in charge of the time clock, you're in charge of scribing. There are a lot of ways that you can bring those kinds of skills to being
facilitative to the group functioning well together, the group accomplishing. Yes, another key idea. And if we could get the mic I won't have to repeat, Judy. What else are you seeing there?
AUDIENCE MEMBER: [inaudible]
RHONDA TYREE: Yeah, wait for the mic a moment. Oh, is your name Mike?
AUDIENCE MEMBER: I could use a teacher voice.
RHONDA TYREE: But we want it to be picked up on the video.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: I think a lot of these words you would also use if you're trying to build capacity within your team.
RHONDA TYREE: I think of facilitation a lot as capacity building or a learning, teaching, engaging change activity and those certainly are a lot of those kinds of things that you do as a trainer, a
technical assistant, a consultant. Someone in a leadership role, a principle and administrator or someone who is in a parent role, advocating for change. Yeah, other themes or observations? Wait for
the microphone. Judy's going to get her workout a lot.
JUDY: I have [inaudible]
AUDIENCE MEMBER: Many words require communication, they're communication themes.
RHONDA TYREE: Very much about communication, they're about interdependence, right? Verbal, non-verbal. Let's step out of the content for a moment and talk about the process ideas, first of all, if
you're not familiar with this really cool program, it's called Wordle. And you have on your PowerPoint slides the www.wordle.net. And all I did was enter the words and then I hit go and told it to
run and it's so cool because you can do all sorts of fun things with different ways of displaying the information, you can have it configuring all shorts of crazy--any which way configurations you
can change the color of it, etcetera. Talk about what I did. What were some of the things you observed me as a facilitator demonstrating?
AUDIENCE MEMBER: You gave us some pause time, sometime in between to think things through without rushing us.
RHONDA TYREE: And exactly how did I do that, what did you observe me doing? I stopped talking, what I see all the time is people tried to wait but it is so hard, it is so hard to keep your mouth
close. I love this acronym, WAIT. Why Am I Talking? Wait. Hi, Susan, have a seat. Settle in folks. What else did you observed me doing?
JUDY: Where are you going, over here.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: What I noticed was the affirmative way that you accepted everyone's answers, in an encouraging way.
RHONDA TYREE: Tried to repeat the word I heard not infere too much from it, tried to look them in the eye, grab it, type it, tried to spell it correctly. What else did you see me doing?
AUDIENCE MEMBER: You were asking questions, you get people to elaborate on their answers so giving them some encouragement to think more, say a bit more about their original idea.
RHONDA TYREE: Some of that was leading, probing, where I really hoped we would go, most of it was following wherever you went with it, because this learning experience is between the generic
information I bring to you and you as a specific learner, a specific facilitator in your individual context or multiple situations that you're in. And if we can't connect between what you already
bring, know, have to share, and what I bring, know, how to share, then we won't move forward, that's a basic adult learning principle. It's also a basic principle. Teaching and working with children
in general is the importance of drawing that connection. Other observations about what I did? One thing I'm brainstorming type of activities is to throw the question, hold the question, I didn't
really have to keep it in front of you, I had the key word on the screen and you kept building when I had new people enter the room, I repeated the question. My main tag or--work, is to hold us in
the question. I didn't set--setup too many norms or rules for how you did it, I threw the question and bang, we went, you know, as fast as I was able to keep up with you. But brainstorming is about
generating ideas, not evaluating ideas. So if we had gotten into a situation or someone said, "I don't agree," I probably would had gently said, "Let's get your idea too. We're brain storming right
now." Here's another way you can do it. In fact we're going to practice this way later, you can simply put the word in the middle of a chart paper and with chart paper share the key ideas that you
associate with the key concept like defining identity or defining facilitation. Well, let's go back to objective one, defining facilitations. Here's they way I think of it. And I've been thinking
about it this way for quite a while. Gosh, I don't know, 15 years ago, PaTTAN asked me to do training on facilitation. And I worked out looking at a lot literature and reflecting on a lot of what I
knew PaTTAN and IU folks at the time were doing and what I was doing. And I just came up with this definition that I continue to think that's pretty powerful. It's the idea that facilitation is art,
craft and science. In other words, the art is something you intuitively bring to it. I bet everyone in here brings something natural to the task of it, you know, that the listening skills or you're
really good at asking the provocative question, or you're really good at synthesizing or you're really good at the actual, holding the structure of a data enquiry dialog or whatever process you would
be using. So there's an art that you bring to it. And art demands is risk taking, getting out there and taking chances sometimes being confident in silence. Being confident when things aren't going
well that you might actually need to move into conflict rather than away from it. It takes risk taking to be an artist who put yourself out there on the canvas. It's also a craft, there are a lot of
tips and techniques like wordle, how large your should print, whether you should use a red marker or not, I mean there's crazy craft stuff, you know, about how to do it and there are a lot of great
trainings. And there's a science to it. There have been this research about stuff like what really moves people to creativity. There's a great group out of Creative Problem Solving Buffalo New York.
And they've looked at silence, when a group is brainstorming, what classically happens is they dump ideas that are familiar and they hit a point where they either get silly or they get silent. If
that's a facilitator, you go through that, then what happens is they go to novel ideas but not very useful. They often get silly and playful. And then if you go through that, they get both novel
ideas and useful ideas. That's what you want with creativity or they validate and grow ideas that they've had before that are useful ideas. So there's a science when people have actually had studied.
How do you get a broader range of thinking, how do you get agreements that stay, that people actually implement, they've studied the science of it. And it's very much about leadership, very much
about leading process, leading learning to enable and I think of these three continuums, optimal human interaction, optimal task performance, actually creating a model transition program. Actually
being able to make an agreement on a behavior support plan that will be implemented. So it's very much about task performance and it's about optimizing learning, the piece that you picked-up about,
it's really a lot about people learning individually and collectively. And out of that, if you're able to across time, across experiences, get a group to work optimally together, the people dynamics
in communication. Get them really high on the task that they're trying to achieve, a good functional behavior assessment, building meaning off of that. Implications for a good behavior support plan,
building meaning off of that, reviewing their data, reviewing when a child was restrained, used physical intervention coming back together as an IEP team, revisiting it, going back when they're
repeating those kinds of tasks that at overtime, they're learning together. And it's learning that translates into change. It's learning that translates into heart and people doing things different.
I believe as an educator. And that's where results come from. So that's the way I think of facilitation. Let me ask about your experience with facilitation. On a scale of zero experience to five, I
have facilitated so many groups you could be right up here with me training or somewhere in between. I have some level of experience with facilitation. Where would you say you are right now. Throw it
a fist of five, zero, some, five, somewhere in between? Look around the room, we have a lot experience in here. Let me ask another question. In terms of where you learned to facilitate, would you say
it's more informal strategies like hard knocks, taking risk, through really formal ways of learning, going to trainings, going to the International Association of Facilitators reading Roger Schwarz's
books about facilitation? Where would you say on your--you are on that continuum of where you learned to facilitate? Informal through formal? So we have people that have had some formal training, we
have people that have had the school of hard knocks and actual direct experiences, more informal approaches, there are a lot of ways to become a facilitator. Now, let's talk about that technique for
a moment, those techniques are called Polling Technique taking the sample of the room so the one I did was fist to five, you can read anything, you could read Level of Agreement. I'm starting to see
heads nodding around this idea and I'm curious about where we are with agreement. On a scale of zero to five, zero being no fingers, one being some, growing through, I have really, really strong
agreement, let's see where you are right now. And it's sort of like that game rock, scissors, paper. You throw it in the room, people get used to it. And you can say, oh, my goodness, we have a lot
of momentum, we have all those fours and fives. I noticed you're at a one. Let's talk about that a little bit. What about it? Is it that's, you know, feel -- you would feel a need to be revised if
you were to move forward. That's a polling, polls taking technique. This one is another polling, how -- polls taking technique. This one, thumbs up, thumbs down is another polling the group, polls
taking technique, you know, I'm -- I'd like before we have very much discussion to see where our preliminary leanings are on this idea. Thumbs up means, yes, I'm -- I could support that idea. Thumbs
down means no, I don't think I could support that idea. Thumbs in the middle means I'm somewhere in between. And you get a quick read to see where the group is open for discussion and then if you
want to use that technique you could use it for actually voting. I like consensus voting. That's about learning and the group feels strongly, they can move together. Those are polling techniques.
Does anybody know in a different type of polling technique that you have used that you like to share with the group? Ways you take the polls? What about the clickers? Use those clickers and you
immediately see a bar craft. Has anybody used Poll Everywhere? Marsha, do you have one?
RHONDA TYREE: Poll Everywhere, tell folks how poll everywhere works. Wait for the microphone, Marsha so it will be on tape. P-O-L-L everywhere.com. Marsha, how [inaudible].
MARSHA: Poll Everywhere.
MARSHA: You go online, you set it up, and people can answer polls using their cell phone. So you give them a code, it will be up on the screen and they will text the numbers and the -- that correspond
to the answers that you have up on the screen and instantly -- almost instantly, the poll will show. And it will tell you how many people responded and what response they had. You can have yes, no,
true, false, or you can have multiple responses. It's very cool.
RHONDA TYREE: And you can set it up like 10 minutes before you -- ready to ask it, you put -- you send them in a break, you ask some provocative questions, they come back, bang. Anybody else have
other polling techniques? Ways you take the poll? Susan. Thank you, Judy.
SUSAN: In an adaptation of take a stand where you stand along a line which was really effective with my girl scout troop years ago, stand along a line of agreement. Do -- I do that with hand raising
where I say, you know, in a -- I'm going from one to ten and you know, one is you don't feel real strongly about, ten year in complete agreement, and if you do it across the room you kind of get a
wave of hands up down and it shows everybody the variation of where people stand on something.
RHONDA TYREE: Following what she's suggesting, so let's see if I can think of an example. I worked with an ARC in a state that was asking a question about should we be doing more individualized
advocacy supports and/or more systems change working with the whole culture, or the whole system, the whole community types of change? And so one end was systems change and one end was individual
advocacy. And then there's a continuum along and I would read a scenario, a child is born and has this type of experience. And then they would take a stand on what should ARC do about the scenario,
the problem, real life types of scenarios. And they all stand along the continuum and then it's so awesome because you can actually dig and get them to talk about it and it's high risk in a way,
right? I mean that's a pretty sensitive thing. I had to do a lot of low risk activities to get them to a place where they were willing to do that. But you can -- you can talk about -- I noticed
you're the only one standing down there on individual advocacy, talk a little bit about why, what it means to you. So those are powerful techniques continuum techniques. Other ideas about polling,
ways you take the pulse of a group?
AUDIENCE MEMBER: I've done four corners, where the four corners of the rooms, if I'm trying to see how much they know about a topic, you know, a lot go to this corner, if you know a little bit, you
feel sort of an expert, or you're an expert, you know, in the four corners of the room and then you talk amongst each other of why you chose that area.
RHONDA TYREE: And some of the powers of those kinds, of those take a stand or that four corners is it builds in the kinesthetic movement that, you know, we recognized that children need a very set of
modalities or approaches for learning but we really, really need to honor those for adults. I mean, how many groups have you been with that around the formal board table with all the formal chairs,
there's someone who gets up and says, "I can't sit for that long and I would prefer to just stand at the wall occasionally?" Well, we really should be building in for those kinds of learning but also
thinking towards teaming and changing and conducive, emotional, social, physical intellectual readiness to work together. All right. Here's what I said. I want you thinking about a group, a real
group that you worked with throughout this afternoons work. So here's your task individually. Identify and describe a team that you really worked with, it might be formal, it might be informal to be
a group, that you think functions less than optimally, and that you'd like to look for some ideas for today. And that they function less than optimally on possibly some of these four dimensions. Now
if you have the handouts printed out, there's a worksheet that you might want to take notes on that includes some of the key concepts from the overall PowerPoint. So here's what I want you to do.
Think about your group. You might not want to put their name on the worksheet in case it falls out of your folder. And then just write yourself some descriptors about what are some of the things that
you think are less than optimal in terms of their group dynamics, how productive they are in task performance, how they learn and work together and their results. Take a few minutes individually. So
I shared with you -- oh, actually, I would like you to do a mind mapping activity to share. I'd like the person who is closest to the front of the room at your table to grab the marker, to grab the
chart paper and to lean a mind map. In the middle of the paper write the word Team Dysfunctions. Team Dysfunctions. And everybody start calling out what descriptive words come to mind to describe
Team Dysfunctions that you actually are experiencing with your groups. Call them out. Team dysfunctions you're really experiencing. Here's my general impression, we could spend some time together. Do
you feel joy? Clearly when I look at some of the things that are on the tables brainstormed, it's pretty clear that there are other folks that experiencing some similar dynamics, but also some very
unique dynamics. Well, I want you to keep thinking about your individual team and I want you to keep working together as we go through the day on sharing ideas with each other that are either
simulated or that you have experienced and could bring to bear. You have a handout that was posted that is about Team Dysfunction, and it looks like this. And it's sort of an interesting model that a
group that I heard present a few years ago talked about -- that talks about the foundational challenges of an absence of trust. And if you think about trust and I see some words on here that are
related to these ideas of trust, here's what the main point into, lack of a safe environment. Another, one I see is unengaged and emotional involvement -- heavy emotional involvement. You know, if
you have lack of trust, you have lack of vulnerability, right? It's very difficult for you to be honest about your opinion, your need, your interest, the solutions that you think are important. And
it translates into challenges with fear of conflict or avoidance of conflict often or escalation of conflict, but often absence of trust is the invisible link of issues. So you know if you have a
group that's too nice, too easy, but ultimately, they don't commit and take accountability and take action and they don't follow through it probably goes back to they really need more space for
disagreement, more safety, more opportunity, for bringing out the diversity of their view points in constructive ways. And, um, and then this group talked about how that absence of trust and the
inability to really explore through and bring the richness of your diverse thoughts together can lead to lack of commitments. So oftentimes what you see is there's almost a pretense of we commit, a
passiveness to yes, we'll do that, a following of strong, dominant player or momentum of the group, but it doesn't lead to accountability. And it doesn't lead to people really taking on the change
that they committed to and holding each other accountable to that and it translating into change. So, I think it's an interesting concept if you talk about the foundation of trust. Think about this
team, a team that gathers around a table on the behalf of a child. I'd like you to talk a little bit at your group about these prompts. Over generalized, think about the basic founding interest, the
stereo -- over stereotype interest that might be at play -- or the frames of references that might be at play around the child's IEP team. Oh, that principal, all he cares about is; oh, that Special
Ed Administrator, the primary thing she has to worry about is; oh, that family, they only; oh, that General Educator, her big concern; oh, that Special Educator, his big concern. Somebody at the
table to the right of the facilitator, who scribe, so the person to the right of the scribe for the last activity, you're the facilitator. Go through each of these roles and get the group talking a
little bit about the over generalized stereotypes. Move from role to role quickly, facilitators, go. So when you think about on an over stereotyped level that there really are some truth to different
interest and responsibilities in role distinctions, but oftentimes there are assumptions that the interest are very different and oftentimes you hear people say, "Let's come back to the child."
Whether you're in an -- a specific child issue or your at an educational or maybe you're at a curriculum committee. And people say let's bring it back to children, let's talk about children because
they feel that there is a shared need underneath that. I love the way -- I want to show -- share with you a brief clip from a speaker who's name is Simon Sinek, who talks about shared cause, and
thinks about cause at a very deep fundamental level that talks about what is your burning cause? That's where trust is tied up. The idea of understanding what you're really about. He talks about
Martin Luther King. And he says -- he does a really great job unpacking, you know, that Martin Luther King was just a phenomenal leader able to inspire people to follow, to lead. To come along, to
join, change, to commit to action that was different above and beyond. And he says, it has to do with people connecting to this person, believes what I believe. This person has a deep driving cause
and a great line that he uses at the end, I shouldn't give away because it's not mine, but he says Martin Luther King didn't say, "I have a plan," he said, "I have a dream." Think about the team that
you work about -- with, think about their level of trust in each other on a continuum of they have high trust in each other. Through a continuum of there's an absence of trust and think about it the
way Simon Sinek is talking about deep driving cause. The kind of cause where you're willing to have role release with yourself. You're able -- for example, if you're in one of the most central roles
of any of the work that we do apparent to say I trust this person has my back. I trust this person will go the distance that it's going to take. To what level did the players really have that kind of
sense of shared purpose, shared cause, trust. Think about your team, take some notes, rate them on a scale low to high. I see a lot of words on those papers that have to do with level of
communication, cost and amount, where some of the things you said that were effective or ineffective, dysfunctional communication.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: Mixed messages.
RHONDA TYREE: Mixed messages.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: Charge language.
RHONDA TYREE: Charge language. What was it?
AUDIENCE MEMBER: Disagreement.
RHONDA TYREE: Disagreement.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: Hidden agendas.
RHONDA TYREE: Hidden agendas. Now, it really ties to the trust conversation doesn't it? Others?
RHONDA TYREE: Disengaged, they're not present, they're not actively engaged. Well, what -- this continuum would say -- would be think really actively about that continuum of communication, and think
about their comfort or their fear of conflict. Now, think about it in terms of what they're experiencing emotionally when they disagree. So having disagreement that gets volatile and it's
nonproductive and that people storm out or that people afterwards have to debrief or they get to a place where they're personally destructive. Think about whether or not there is a comfort with that
level of disagreement and rate your team on that, think about some active descriptors, about what is really going on in my team. Are they comfortable? And I'm pushing you to say just be they do it
doesn't mean they're necessarily comfortable with it. And think about your team on this continuum, their level of commitment to change and their ability to use effective or ineffective
decision-making. Decision-making happens in lots of lots of different ways, somebody give me an example of ineffective decision-making.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: A decision done in isolate --oh, a decision done in isolation.
RHONDA TYREE: Decision done in isolation happens all the time. Group comes together to work they are under the understandings whether they are accurate understandings or not, but it's some sort of
group work but then another force goes out and makes the decision without them. Maybe it's the director who has that formal role, the administrator, maybe it's just another group that can send
patient with we need to have productivity or that idea they didn't agree. Another example of ineffective decision-making.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: Surrender or [inaudible]
RHONDA TYREE: I worked for years with an administrator it was his or her organization that he or she brought together for an advisory purpose and it seemed like they were making group decisions all of
the time, but really what was happening was this person would not go off and do whatever. And it was a very, very dysfunctional cycle for the group until we got to explicit norms about what really is
the decision role because it's certainly okay for someone to convene a group with transparent parameters that this is how decisions are going to be made and your input if you choose to be a part of
the group is going to be used in these ways. If they're transparent, yes, so there's like sabotage and, you know, not following through on those and, of course, I'm going to move more quickly through
these because I want to get into some of the practice about the foundational levels of trust and communication. That leads them to whether or not anything gets done from meeting to meeting or
assignment deadlines get actually done and whether anybody actually holds accountability for that occurring. And then there are lots of strategies for how do you leave a meeting with action steps or
a commitment with actions steps for who's going to do what by when, how will it be done, who will we stay coordinated, what will the deliverables look like, et cetera, what would be the evidence of
success? So whether or not you have functional strategies for that in your team, and then finally this idea of, are we having outcomes and making a difference as intended? Sometimes difference can be
a very intangible thing like learning and sometimes it's a very, very tangible thing like an actual school improvement plan, an actual assessment under project max of what the --then, you know, needs
are in the process for informing where starting points are and so forth. So think about your team actively on those variables and what I'd like to focus on as we turn to practices and skills are the
fathom two. Absence of trust or competing interest and purposes in a group, and what do you do about ineffective communication and fear of conflict and turn our attention to training objective three
which is looking at facilitation skills. All right. Here are some idea starters. One, I have a whole process that I believe fundamentally and called discovery. Discovery, [inaudible] group, or
actually I might get a practitioner, someone from Project Max, maximizing access in learning talk about the needs assessment, I might not even be using the right word on that. Process that you
through with teams, the Practice Profile, Rubric work. Marsha, talk about a little about what that access is like.
MARSHA: We have a Practice Profile that we developed that kind of describes optimized practice and six, is it six? Different areas of practice.
RHONDA TYREE: Like leadership, yeah.
MARSHA: Thank you. I know I've only lived this for year and a half now. So I should know this practice. I should have it all memorized. And under each one there are some look force and the process is
that we have the groups look at each of the sections, discuss the look force, come up with some evidence to support a rating of one to four and each one of the components under each area of practice.
It's really the discussion, that's the most important part of that not so much the rating and one of the innovations we had was we came up with discussion guides. So, the way we've divided it in my
teams is that one of us takes notes, projects them up on the board so everybody sees that the discussion is documented and we go back and use that to identify the ratings and then they develop action
steps based on their ratings in each one of those areas. Is that enough?
RHONDA TYREE: Thank you, so that's an example of a discovery process that very much is exploring under, in that case, six structured domains or areas of practice where are we, and the thing that she
said is the ticket. The discovery is about shared discussion, shared articulation of where are we now what are the implication, what's going on in our situation and what does it mean in terms of how
we move forward, in that case developing an action plan. One of the most important variables for I think groups to think about is leadership. Someone from, let's use -- continue with that example for
a moment, from practice--from Project Max on the Practice Profile for leadership, what are some of the kinds of questions that you're asking and exploring? Susan?
SUSAN: I'm with Marsha, this feels a little bit like a quiz. But some of the things under leadership are do leaders...
AUDIENCE MEMBER: Articulate...
SUSAN: Thank you. Articulate a vision for all students to be a part -- have high expectations and access to the General Ed curriculum. And beyond articulating a vision another step is do leaders
promote that vision in their actions.
RHONDA TYREE: So if I can interrupt there, when I do discovery with any project, any state, any level, national, state, regional, you know, intermediate unit, local, I listen a lot for those basic
questions when they say, "Will you come in this strategic planning? Will you come in and do help our team with collaboration?" I listen a lot for does leadership could be individual and/or shared
have a general shared sense of their cause or purpose, their vision and do they practice it. Is it not only written but is it actually something that they do do. It's fundamental because if you're
going to knuckle down on how to do something, how to set priorities within our overloaded office and actually be able to have the time to spend our time wherever, you know, we're choosing to, you're
going to work on that, you need to know why and what's important. So what are the driving fundamental vision and purposes? Thank you for couple of ideas from the Profile. Well, leadership -- the
leadership situation, there are lots of questions that you can ask. I want you to think about the team you're working with and think about, not only for the individual who has positional leadership
like the principal or an administrator or your executive or your director at your project, whoever, but the leadership in general and think about what kinds of leadership -- what kind of leadership
is operational. So, I have a handout that has a description of that. Here's the page that has a little less visual mass that I want to talk through. There are lots of different types of leadership
but when you're bringing a group together and you're asking what's the level of trust here, understanding this is really important. It's the general style of leadership a directive style. In other
words it's when where there's clear authority whether people are explicit and out loud about it or not, and there's decision-making and that there's change, and there's little expectation for input
from others even when it's not explicit. So, you could be in a meeting where the premises we come together and make decisions, but everybody knows if that person says yay or nay is where the ship's
going. That's a directive leadership situation, not a facilitator's role. A pure facilitator is not to judge that as right or wrong. Now if you're in that organization, you might have your own
personal stake and perhaps even frustration with that, but a pure facilitator says, "This is the situation. I can work on the situation, but the most important thing is that I recognize that's the
situation before I set the group up for increased difficult dynamics, when I think about how I structure their time and decision making [inaudible] decisions." So you see that a continuum over on the
sides, that lends towards more close design. And in the way I put a meeting together or an opportunity, webinars, etcetera, little involvement and often none resistance. And I often, because
typically I'm being asked for how to engage stake holders in change, I do a lot of coaching with the leader, even if it's my own boss. I don't have a boss right now, but people pay my check, right?
So I coach on, if you really want that, something you might think about is the leadership situation in this way. And then what about expert strategies, that the general leadership situation is we
lean on expertise, so we go only with evidence based practice, or we go only with the patent consultant model, or we go only with the external consultant who comes in and does the cleaning it up.
That's an approach to change. It's a value system in a lot of leadership situations. Is that what the situation in the team you work with or is the team more of an approach that uses educative
strategies? They spend a lot time learning, and digging, and researching, and exploring, and they make decisions on -- based on, educating their way or championing. There's somebody in the group who
leads the group to change and does through -- so through championing the cause, you know, a superintendent, just really an awesome superintendent and can bring people along with his or her leadership
agenda. That's a situation to be aware of. Because, it means you're probably somewhere in the middle of open and closed design in the way you'll structure whether or not people give input at all, how
much time you allow on the topic, whether or not you spend a lot of time on why. In that kind of a situation, why might be a coach presented, repeated, you know, until you get a sense that the group
gets there, why, they come along to the why. Clear down through a group that use negotiating strategies or participatory strategies, it really is intended to be open designed. People really do have a
voice and they come together. And when they work together, there is an expectation of equity or there is clarity around the role distinctions. You know, that person's the external consultant and
brings us expertise. And this person's the decision maker on the pocket book. And that person's that parent rep who gets the -- you know, the issues of the family. And so -- but we have some kind of
real explicit participatory expectations that often is an open -- more open kind of structures. It takes more time. But what a lot of the people who buy into stakeholder based change processes, which
is kind of what brings you to the table, how do you get groups to work together? It takes more time. And a lot of people would say it leads to more effective change. You have to invest the time on
the front-end or the back-end. So even if you're trying to bulldoze through a strategy that's an awesome strategy, you often times will have resistance and have to put the time into the pr part of
it, the training part of it, the learning part of it. Think about your team. Talk with a neighbor a little bit about which leadership style is the situation in the team you're talking -- you
identified for today's work. Let me pull you back together. Take a look for a moment at this continuum. Take a look for a moment at this continuum. And the statement on the side is, the facilitation
design, you're role as a facilitator, whether a formal or an informal role. And the strategy should match the leadership situation, the culture. And I'm just focusing on one aspect of the culture. I
mean, there are all sorts of -- there are political dimensions, there are priorities, there are, you know, educational philosophy, there are lots of aspects to why you choose to do the things you
choose as a facilitator. But one part of it is that you as a facilitator need to structure for the leadership situation, really intentionally. I'm going to give an example and then I'm going to see
if anybody has another example of a practical implication that you're starting to think about, about what your could do differently. If I were -- I have worked for state directors of Pennsylvania,
Bureau of Special Education, as have many of you, since William Penn. So let's see if we can activate some of the different leadership styles. So Will Penn -- I won't get him an order. Michelle
Viscera, Sheryl -- what was Sheryl's last name?
RHONDA TYREE: Fran Workonskie, John Tanasini...
RHONDA TYREE: ...Linda Rand, very different leadership styles, very different. And they all brought successful stakeholder groups to, you know, move forward. And part of my role, again, as a facilitator
is not to judge those differences in style, although I coached, I gave feedback on it. If you want to accomplish this, a suggestion would be, think about engaging like that, but you have to flex. So,
if you have somebody who's really, let's say fair, they're -- the leadership context and I don't mean again to situate leadership with position. So, I'm not talking about the principle, I am not
talking about the Superintendent, I am not only talking about the Bureau Director, the PaTTAN Director, I'm talking about the culture of leadership in that situation. If it's -- the group decides,
the group decides, the group decides, there are risks there that have to do with meeting priorities, connecting and aligning to larger visions, missions, expectations, timelines, getting the group to
move forward, getting the resources behind what they commit to do, any kind of real action plan. So as a facilitator, I would really be focusing on strategies for planning ahead and following
through, that have to do with getting the buy-in in the directive of the key leadership and the resources that's going to take for change, and putting together really concrete action plans. I would
really focus on deliverables that are action plans for a group like that. Another practical example and you may think about I'm starting to think about or I've tried this because the leadership
situation was that way.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: How about [inaudible] general ed and a special ed?
RHONDA TYREE: A general ed and a special ed leader.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: Where there may not really be shared ownership, but they're both there at the meeting and they're both looked at by the other people in the meeting as the leaders.
RHONDA TYREE: In a successful change that we're working on together has to be engage-co -- you know, some sort of engage-co situation. And there's --there are two dynamics there and you need to move a
group forward. So, what are the applications for, what kind of agenda structure you put, who you check with ahead of time, right? If you're only checking with the general ed and not the special ed in
owning how the groups spends a time, you're going to have problems. If you're only checking with the special ed and not the general ed leadership before the groups spends their time, you're going to
have problems. Are there -- good. Do you have any practical strategies or things that you've done at work?
AUDIENCE MEMBER: I tried to talk to them separately before the larger group gets there, so that you have a little bit of consensus about what we want the results to be, so they can see they have to
RHONDA TYREE: I do that too, so much time spent talking with them ahead of time, very good. Let's move on. This idea of agreeing on why, before what, before how, before who, before when is really,
work together.
really important. So, really understanding your foundational purpose, your vision, your mission, your goals, your priorities, why you're at the table, why you're here is absolutely critical. And you
can hear when a group starts to debate something where they are. If they're saying things like that, "I'm not so sure we should do that, that that's in the best interest of," they're on a why level.
They're still asking the whether or not question. If they're saying things like this, "How would we go about it? Where would we get the resources? Hey, we could -- we could leverage that grant that
was just put out by XY Organization." They're down at the how level. And if you listen to a group, you just listen, listen, listen, you can tell where they are. If they're here and your action plan
for today, your agenda is here, you're going to have trouble. You are not going to end up with an action plan that people are committed to. You may need to slow down, and go back, and work through
the why, the foundation of why of the work. The speaker that I showed you earlier Simon Sinek talks about -- he calls this the Golden Circle. He talks about it in buy-in. Think about the way he's
talking about selling as committing to change, a group committing to each other to do something. Those very questions that he's asking are the kind of driving questions that you can ask to get a
group back down to they no longer have an absence of fear, they have a sense -- or, excuse me, an absence of trust, they have a sense of trust in each other and they're willing to be more vulnerable
in front of each other. I stop this all the time and I say "Oh, let's use the fundamental design principle, why before what, what before how, how before when by whom." I do it all the time. When I
see signs of they don't trust each other, they don't have shared purpose, she's using the word literacy to talk about ELA stuff, he's using the word literacy to talk about communication math and ELA
stuff, they're not on the same why, and they're over there working on an action plan. They're going to have trouble. They're not really -- she's not going to really commit to math and communication
because that's not her why or her what, so she shouldn't be working on how. And I, as a facilitator, shouldn't be creating a false set of agreements that they're not going to be able to commit. It
takes a kind of a in situ decision making on my part to really listen for where they are in that buying in, committing to change. Talk a little bit with the neighbors. Are they feeling too
theoretical or do you see any practical implications for the group you are working with, debrief with the neighbor, think about your team that you're thinking about today. Thank you. Let me pull you
back together. A set of resources that I think are really, really powerful and I related it to this idea of the importance of finding [inaudible] there's a technique described in a resource tool box
that I want to share with you. And there's a practical protocol in there, but the thing I'm really excited about sharing with you is this tool box overall. Now, PaTTAN has unbelievable protocols. You
know, I'm just always so wowed by how long you've been doing such a good job of documenting, you know, what's the purpose for the activity, what are the roles, what are the materials that you need,
what would the directions be, how would you -- what would the protocol be to follow through and so forth, so PaTTAN itself is just, you know, a wealth in your various initiatives of protocols. But
here's another one that's really cool and it's a table of contents from a community tool box that was put together by the University of Kansas and it's called Community Tool Box. And they have, since
about 1994, been putting protocols in place across these various practitioners for what are ways to bring groups together to leverage change to community health issues. And they have hundreds, and
hundreds, and hundreds that are organized in these various approaches to change. So, you can see here there are things like how do you do community assessments, and how do you do promoting interest
in participation in initiatives, develop a strategic plan in organizational structure, what about leadership and management issue, and analyzing community problems, and so forth. Well, the one that
I'd like to take a look at is the analyzing community problems. Within that, they have a set of ideas that are about how do you get down underneath what's going on at the causal level. And a really
cool protocol is the But Why Technique. A lot of people call it The Ladder of Assumptions, The Ladder of Influence. And the basic thing that you do, here they're describing it as going after root
cause. There are a lot of really sophisticated approaches for getting at root cause that are data driven. But this one that they use is you have a particular assumption that's shared, or a solution
that's suggested, or an idea or problem statement, and you ask over and over the question, "But why?" They give an answer to that and you ask again, "But why?" They give an answer to that and you ask
again, "But why?" And they suggest a how-to, and you get more specific detail, and you ask again, "But why?" I use this sometimes when I had several different camps going on. Somebody has some strong
position for, "I think we should A," and somebody else says, "I think we should B." And one of the most important stakeholders at the table, the representatives of the disability that we're working
on, you know, deaf-blind issues, for example, say, "This is completely off-based with, you know, what we really should be talking about the needs of my fellow individuals with -- who are deaf-blind."
And so the But Why Technique goes to why do you want to do that? Why do you want to do that? Why do you want to do that? Why do you want to do that? And eventually, what you find is common cause.
Sometimes you'll find you're able to reframe the question into what they're really trying to do that isn't so positional, and so then the how level. It's more at the what level. The bigger point I
wanted to share with you is this Community Tool Box is full of really great practices if you're looking for how to do icebreakers, how to do planning, how to do commitment building, how to do
collaboration, this is one resource that is jam-packed full, something practical from today. Any -- I have some others at the end of the powerpoint, but any other protocol or resources like that that
any of you turn to, things that are online, full of protocols, practices, facilitation tips? I'll show you some more at the end of the day. All right. Well, another idea starter for If you have an
absence of trust, competing interest and purposes is the classic work that you can do with clarifying the vision, the mission, the goals, the objectives. This is a strategic plan from a group that I
work with in Michigan. They work very hard with large stakeholder input and they put together a vision and state -- mission statement. In this case, giving something extra, put students on top, and
their mission of accelerating student achievement through school improvement by working as partners, that was the big uh-huh for them as partners, what does that really mean, to maximize allowable
use of supplementary resources. And then this is the part that's made a huge substantial difference, these are values, beliefs, commitments. They came up with a really cool mnemonic that they use,
ABC. In fact, they started singing in a small group when they came up with that cute way of organizing these driving questions. And they actively use these because they actively stay in front of
them. That's a little bookmark. They also have posters that are on the wall. As a facilitator, I coach their coaches, the people really on leadership roles in their teams for process to use these
questions over and over. I asked them to put on every agenda ABCDE, you know, either as just a little reminder in a byline, so that it actively stays in front of them. I was -- and then of course,
their goals are there. So, align, balance, communicate, develop relationships, evaluate, how are we practicing those? Another example is on project MAX, where I work pretty activity with the project
management team and also the parent engagement portion of that work. Every single powerpoint template starts the same way. Now, project MAXers, what are some of those basic slides you see up front?
You've seen them over, and over, and over. What are they? Karen.
KAREN: All right. This is the easy one [inaudible] so we have the title slide, which is a standard format for that, but then we also have Division of the Bureau of Special Education and the
Pennsylvania Department of Education. We also have the commitment from out commonwealth to lease restrictive environment for our students with disabilities, especially those with complex needs.
What's the third one?
AUDIENCE MEMBER: The [inaudible]
KAREN: The leased restrictive environment, commitment to LRE, BSC, PDE vision.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: The purpose of [inaudible] department statement for [inaudible]
KAREN: Oh, the department -- yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, the vision, the department statement, thank you.
RHONDA TYREE: So, the first ones you see on a lot of PaTTAN stuff, right, the reminder of what's this organization [inaudible] vertical alignment about, right? A lot of initiatives, transition, and
autism, and, you know, illiteracy, and behavior, and RTI, and many, many of your initiative, you see those basic slides. Now, we're getting down to the purpose of project MAX. What else is there?
Over, and over, and over.
RHONDA TYREE: The logo, the framework.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: The logo, the framework for how we're following the process, the...
AUDIENCE MEMBER: You know, things that look like the [inaudible]
AUDIENCE MEMBER: That said, who has -- who is everybody involved, the administrators...
RHONDA TYREE: The logic model, the logic model.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: The logic model implementation, science model, all of those.
RHONDA TYREE: Right. So, that's not -- in the flow chart, there's another example of how within a project you can remind the group, and help ground the group over, and over, and over in their basic
commitments, their basic why of their work over, and over, and over, and over. So, you could put it on a agenda. You could put it on the wall. You can just, as a facilitator, say it over and over,
prompt it over and over. You can acknowledge it when it's happening. Thank you for grounding in our basic vision. Thank you for returning to the why and bringing the face of the child forward. You
know, those are ways to keep it active. Think for a moment. Talk with a neighbor about the group you're thinking about. How active, and in front of you, and not only espoused, you know, written, but
practice is the vision, the mission, the goals, the priorities, the beliefs, the values, the -- I'm going to talk about -- more on this later. Talk with a neighbor a little bit. Is the more you could
do as a facilitator? Actively embrace those. Let me ask for a few of you to report and share. I heard one team say "Oh. That can be a little overkill to have all those slides." Let's get into the
meat of it. Sometimes, that can be a bit challenging. Let's hear some groups report out. Implications of what we've talked about so far, what are some of the ideas that are perking for you? Introduce
yourself to the group then share with us if you would.
CARRIE: Hi, I'm Carrie from IU 23 and we've talked a lot at our table, gotten a lot of good thoughts about where some of our different groups are that we have in our mind. And we really keep getting
back to that whole why piece as being so central and what's missing. So, when I think about the group, I'm thinking of in going forward, and why they haven't gone forward, and why I've been
facilitating, and now I'm going to go back, and do more facilitating. It comes back to that why piece, having to let people have the time to move forward. I think we have our timelines. We have this
three-hour professional development window and we have our agenda A, B, and C. A is why, B is, you know, and so forth. And sometimes, you know, it may be multiple why sessions because we're thinking
along, you know, just how are we going to move people forward.
RHONDA TYREE: You know, I find, as a facilitator, that we're all in the educational system, you know, under such pressure. And the political and contextual dynamics, you know, for accountability,
accountability. As a parent of an 18 year old with significant autism, I am one of the greatest advocates for we need to be efficient, and resource intensive, and affective with change. As a
facilitator, what I have to hold onto is a fundamental belief that by aligning around why, we can make change and move. And even when politics lead to new policy, new leadership, reshuffling of the
deck, but that basic learning, and that basic aligning, and the basic beliefs work stays, and it grows, and it spreads. It's hard though. You know, you have to find ways to be really efficient in how
to do that. Thank you for sharing. Other insights about implications of what we've talked about so far for you team?
AUDIENCE MEMBER: It's a shy group.
RHONDA TYREE: Not shy, we got a lot of engagement going on. All right. So, let's take a look at facilitation skills and idea starters for what if you have ineffective communication and you have fear
of conflict. Here's another resource that I would turn you onto. People say a lot to me "Where do you get training?" And I'm really like growth consultants. I want to take you to their website and
show you some really cool stuff they have. I've gone to a lot of their training and they do really simple stuff, like how to do charting, you know. We got some great charters in here. And, you know,
like they'll talk about how large the [inaudible] should be, what kinds of displays you should do for what kinds of conversation. You know, like they got some really neat -- different formats that
now, when I hear a group starting to have certain types of conversation, I'll say "Oh, that's matrix." "Oh, that's Mandela, put an idea in the middle and move around." "Oh, that's a movement chart."
So -- you know, so they have really basic good training like that. One of the things that they're known for is visual movement. So, in addition to all the training that they have on other parts of
their website, you'll find in their store, their product section, some really cool visual displays that you can buy. And they also are extremely informative. Let's see if I can find one for visual
mapping. So they have this huge roll out butcher block papers and then they have all sorts of protocols that lead to different types of mapping. So here's one that you would probe past, present,
future, and different places for highlighting, exploring and learning, preparing to change. They have some that -- let me see if I can find a more practical one. Some that are about the basic context
of the situation. Oh, here they are. Context map. You can buy these. They're beautiful color displays and, you know, what their point is that often times by creating a work -- a wall work together or
a document, you know, like a nice document and moving towards product, the group's gel. There is something about -- they have visual memory and imagery together and they focus on key kind of ideas.
So here they would be saying, you know, where you're talking about what are the real variables? You know, you don't just want a glitzy chart. That's not the point. The point is you really want to
talk about, you know, in this case, trends or political factors that are driving the organization apart because they haven't had structured time to talk through what the implications of that are. So
you do the dumping on uncertainties, customer needs, economic climate, political factors, but you really go after what really is at hand here that we need to unpack to be able to make structured
decisions about that training curriculum, that training plan. And they have all sorts of them. They have visioning ones and so forth. So I just wanted to kind of turn you onto one thing you can do
when you have ineffective communication is provide structure in containers like visual containers. Another way to do it is through a document. So I'm not at liberty to share this, but it's recent.
We've -- I've been working with the statewide network of parents under goal four on Project MAX, Maximizing Access and Learning again, and they have been working on a lot of things like what are
partnership principles is about, how would we come together to act as one statewide network supporting, raising expectations, and leading change for children with complex instructional needs having
access to optimal practice. And so recently, we started taking their ideas, and I as a facilitator, put them in a product, you know, an actual word document and brought it back to them by -- it's --
and I call it a compact. It's a set of agreements. By having that visual space, the place where they share the product, it's an internal tool. It's aligning them for when they go back to their own
organizational fronts and they move. So I'm trying to make a point about that. Grove also has a really cool acronym. That's very important. And I see people abuse this in basic meeting facilitation
all the time. They call it Put your Ores in the Water. So make sure in planning ahead and when you start a space or a time together, a webinar, an informal interaction; that you are being someway
clear about the outcomes that are expected, the agenda, how we're going to spend our time together, how long, the roles. I'm going to play the role of facilitator. I'm going to stay out of content
today. My colleague from the IU is going to support the internal coach. They're going to partner together on this particular autism content that we're working on, the IU TAC. And then the rules. What
are the norms? Here's a little tip that you're going to be glad you came. For most groups that I work with, as soon as they tagged me to say, "Will you come work with me?" I--if they don't already
have some sort of templates for meeting management, their agenda, evaluation materials, PowerPoint, process plan, et cetera, I quickly develop those because I know that within a very quick timeline
I'm going to be asked to deliver on something for them that's going to need structure to it. So I want to show you this one. It's from an intermediate unit, a regional group, an educational service
agency in Michigan that I've worked with, AESA. And it has a basic template that I use all the time. It doesn't look so different than that one with the blue line at the top of it that some of you
have seen in different groups that I work on and I threw their logo on it here. I have colleagues that use their logo on everything. I don't do that. I'm about supporting the organization. And so an
interesting thing about this particular agenda -- two things. When you think about agenda development, almost every single time that you spend together has some sort of stage setting, welcome. You
classically have to entertain breaks, you classically have to eat, you classically have to entertain another break, and you classically have to have a closing. Now look, all that leaves to really
develop is one, two, three, four sections of work and you can subdivide that down into tiny, tiny, tiny times. But sometimes I've had groups say to me, "That's really empowering to think I really
only have to put two main ideas, morning and afternoon, in what we're working on. I really only have to put four agenda chunks in what we're working on." So that's really -- you know, it's kind of a
key idea on the template. The second thing I want to show you with the template is I like to use forms a lot. So this piece up here where you can put forms and I like to check off when we finish
something. We finished the overview. We finished this. We finished that. We finished this. Oh, you want to make a change? And I'd go back and I'll open the form. So it's similar to the way when I
used to work in charts a lot. I had those big boxes and I still do. And I check off where are we. If you have a group of flounderers, they cannot stay focused for the life of you. No matter what you
try, you just can't get this group of cats to move. Then showing them where they are in the structured agenda is really helpful. We finished that. We finished that. We finished that. But here's the
reason you're going to be happy you came. So don't save all that mess. So I take a folder like that. Let me get into our training. And I have within that folder -- here's my AESA example of
templates. So this folder right here is that educational group. And inside there is a template for the agenda, a template for the process plan. I'll show you that. So I -- if a group benefits from
role coordination then I -- as I develop their agenda, I dump it in here and we work on what time breakdown, what's the agenda item, that's what's in the agenda itself, but then what's the process?
Who's going to do what, when? Who's in lead on that? And then what are the materials we need? I work on that right as we go along. And some groups like that, some group say that's too much detail,
you know. It's really helpful when you have multiple players. So if you are a general educator, a special educator, and an assistant principal and you need to work together on bringing this meeting
forward, sometimes having it down at that level of detail is helpful because it shows, okay. The general educators are going to make those basic points and the special educators are going to make
those basic points, and then the assistant principal is going to frame the feedback task, the question. So it's role -- it helps with details of time use, details of role coordination. So I have that
generic template, same basic empty template. I have a -- you know, I have sets of those for lots of projects I work with. But in addition, I have things like a generic notes format. So, you know,
unless they have something they use on their own, I have ready to go, you know, there's the basic agenda or objectives. Who will do what by when? That is such a powerful thing to have ready. So right
at the spur of the moment, they make an action step. I can put it into template. I, with a lot of groups, try to stay away from a lot of process notes. I like groups to work on products together and
to change together. So if they are doing brainstorming about successful secondary transition strategies and evidenced-based resources, I don't want that all tied up in, "Now what meeting did we do
that?" I want it in a product that says Successful Secondary Education Transition Resources at the top. So they can go back and they can start to put that stuff together with decisions that they're
making on, why did you look for all those resources on secondary transition? So I try not to have a lot of stuff here. I try to have actions steps and I try to have products to support it. Another
generic template that I tend to have ready to go, I'm still not to the trick -- slick trick yet, is -- I should've had this ready to open more readily. Materials -- a general materials list and an
evaluation. I generically like to have one that basically just this, how did you do on the objectives, and on a scale of one to four, what could go better, what could go -- what went well, what could
go better and other comments. If they have something more specific that they do, I go to it. If we've been working on evaluation, I create something more specific. So here is the trick. And maybe a
PowerPoint template. You know, like we looked to the one for Project MAX. So there is an empty PowerPoint template. If you think about it, almost any group that you work with -- I'm pushing my
computer too hard. Almost any group you work with is going to have over and over supportive PowerPoint display where they work on opening the meeting, clarifying the purpose, clarifying the
objectives, clarifying the agenda. So I have slides in there ready that they can use over and over. So here is the trick. New meeting comes up. I take that whole folder. So in that folder where all
five of those -- five or six of those ideas and I hit Control D. It copies the whole folder and that is next week's meeting. And then another meeting's coming up and I hit Control D on my computer.
So it's copy, duplicate. And then we have a whole set of those items ready to go for another meeting. Materials list, process plan, agenda, PowerPoint, evaluation. I have their logo in there. That's
a cool trick. Yeah. That made -- that was huge for me in terms of change. And you might have other kind of tools that you would use in that way. Anybody have suggestions or strategies you want to
share with the group, anything coming to mind? All right. So let's look for some other ideas here. Another idea starter. Let's talk a little bit about rules, norms. Actually I'm going to move on
because we're getting tight on time. Let's talk about rules and decision rules. So when you think about the norms for a group whether you explicitly state them or not, the group has norms. No matter
what group you work with, the group has norms. And so one of the things that's really important to think about is whether or not you're explicitly going to identify this is the way that we're going
to interact. And there's a tool that did not get posted in the handouts that -- I don't know. Judy, can I make the tools available after the meeting? There's a tool that's a powerful tool that talks
about different types of norms. There is one slide in here that points to different ways of establishing norms, but I have some really practical examples of norms for group and maybe you use them. So
whether or not you say, "These are our guidelines for how we're going to work together," they're there. Functional or dysfunctional, they're there. And there are lots of different ways to get norms.
Some of the most classic would be when you think about the group generating them. How are we going to work together to make sure that we are productive in delivering on our task? And they just
generate a bunch of ideas together and then they agree on them. Another way to do it is to adopt or adapt some given norms. So the project overall has a set of principles that they align to. We
really align to this style of leadership management. Let's take those and see if we can make those our own. Another way of creating norms if the facilitator says, "Here's some ways of working, I
suggest." So with that AESA team, they had a data inquiry model that they used over and over and over. And our two norms that I suggested were driven by data, fueled by communication, so -- because
those were the two areas they weren't doing really well was using the data and using the communication. And they started as just implicit statements, you know, that I would say over and over until
they started picking up on them. They were facilitator led and they started using them with each other and they became written norms. But if you think about it, there are also lots of other ways.
Educative is another way. I have a group I work with in secondary transition all the time. The way they developed their norms, which are very sophisticated norms, is they did training and capacity
building on ways of working. So they did a lot of training and -- like Peter Senge in Inquiry Model and The Learner's Path by Brian Hinken. And so they learned how to be learners, not knowers, not
absolute or certain about anything, but open-minded inquiry-engaging people. That was a model they worked on. Another model that they worked on was data driven dialogue. They adopted a practice, a
data driven dialogue, and they use it not only when they're doing their data work, but they use it every time they engage. So that's an educative approach. Train on methods and say, "These are our
norms, our ways or working. Anybody have other approaches to norms that you really like? The one at the top of the list, formal, if you have a school board that you work with, the IU or the LEA
level, or your own community and they use Robert's Rules Order, do not be dismissed do not be dismissed about those those. 1:18:54 Knowing the fundamental parliamentarian procedures for simple things
like one thing on the table at a time. What are the rules for a primary or a secondary amendment? How do you move the group forward? If an idea isn't seconded by another person, it doesn't have very
much momentum. It might not be a wise topic to spend the whole group time on. Those basic rules are excellent rules to be really versed in as a facilitator. Comments? All right. One more piece I'll
share in and we'll start wrapping up for the day because it's getting close to that time. Design considerations. So I was talking about decision rules. It's really -- when you think about level of
leadership and style of leadership, is this person participatory, are they directive, is the style of the group that they all work together through learning and through research and they'll come to,
you know, some decisions together about what the best practices are or strategy are, what the literature says from our field and our domain, that's an educative leadership. So whatever that is, that
interfaces with the decision rule. And as a facilitator, you need to be extremely explicit before you go into a face-to-face event on what's the decision rule that we're going to operate under. So
this continuum looks a little bit like that leadership continuum that I showed you. And it relates closely, and it shouldn't be paired, but it relates closely to different event purposes and the kind
of purposes you might be writing in objectives. So if the style is highly directive, the information is foundational and it's not where you're putting your energy or it's something that the state
adopted and the IU adopted or the school adopted. It's a given. And there's no input to it. That's more of an update item. And if you frame it in the agenda that way, explicitly with, you know, that
kind of an expectation and a way of working together, you're going to be much more successful than if it goes on the table and people are tearing it apart. You know, so you can support structure for
how you put it on the agenda and what kind of question you ask. So if you keep going down through here, there are lots of different ways to give feedback or what the decision rule is going to be.
Lots of people work this way, the differed decision. So the idea is the group comes together and they work on change and there's a -- a decision is going to be made, but the person -- a key
leadership role, it might be saying the PaTTAN team member who is supporting a team is going to reflect on the feedback and go away and bring back guidance, or solution, or directive. That's a
differed decision. And then being explicit about that's really the way we're working, can cause the group to stay more functional than if that happens, but the premise was we were going to work
together as partners -- equal partners. So I'm giving you, you know, an example of those kinds of things. Another way about explicit decision is really coming down here to conceptualization. This
meeting is about generating ideas, conceptualizing, beginning to vision, beginning to bubble. It is not about going away with decision making. Being explicit about that, as you write your objective,
as you frame what you're doing, and as a facilitator as you hold when they start to crystallize on an idea, that's not why we came together. Powerful, powerful.
AUDIENCE MEMBER: What is the super majority [inaudible]
RHONDA TYREE: Super majority is like in -- it's three-fourths or more of the group often. It's the way people describe it. So the idea would be -- a lot of times like in parliamentarian procedure,
they would say, "You don't need to go to simple majority, 51% of the group or more given that you have a quorum unless you are giving or taking a right away, the rights of the membership." So if
you're going to really change directions and abandon, you know, the basic foundation or first three chapters of the commitments that you made together for, you know, the new curriculum, you're going
to abandon that. You are taking away the rights of the members who were at the table when you decided on it. So they would say, "To do something like that, we need at least three-fourths or more of
us to be able to move forward." One more video and we'll be done. If you have not -- this activity would be a good one for you to look to. It's the idea of lowest level of intervention. I'm not going
to take time on it, but you guys know a lot about PBIS, a lot about positive behavior. Think about those principles as a facilitator. Setting up conditions for success and structuring the environment
in a way, giving back positive feedback, labeling things they're doing well, de-escalating as things start to perk and become problematic using, you know, non-polarizing language with the group. If
you just take those basic kinds of practices and use them as a facilitator, you'll go a long, long way to getting the group to move forward. If you have not seen this video by the CADRE Group who
does -- I know they've done a lot of training with you in the past and how recently they've been here. But CADRE is one of your federally funded centers for alternative dispute resolution in special
education and they build on the idea of interest-based -- interest-based negotiation. And lots of people do win-win negotiation, a lot of those strategies. They have these tools that Pennsylvania's
Dispute Resolution Center actually helped them develop called Two Conversations and there are videos on their website that show a conversation with a principle and a parent that didn't go very well.
And then the second -- they have two tools, I'm going to show you one of them, that is about interspace negotiation and listening skills. And then the second IEP conversation goes so much better when
they apply simple things and here's the key questions. You can use them on a one-on-one level or you can use them on a group level. If somebody starts to pivot and say, "My child needs 60 hours a
week of speech language therapy and nothing else will do." The facilitator in the room, which can be any other player, can say, "How would so and -- your child benefit by 60 hours a week of speech
language?" It's getting under to cause. What are your -- what's your interest? Or if somebody in the group says, "We absolutely have to advocate to the State Board of Education that this kind of
change needs to happen." Here is the question to get underneath the position that they're pointing towards and that people are reacting to. What would be accomplished by that position? And then what
you want to do, and then I'm going to the video, is get people to think expansively about options to solve the interest which may be 60 hours a week of speech language for the child or it may be
advocating for the state board change. But you see how you're going down to why? You're going down to what would be accomplished. CADRE says it better than I can, so let me take you there and it'll
be the last thing we do. The before and after conversation and the listening tapes are really, really good because you can see it and practice how a simple question can make such a difference. We are
at closure on our time together. I thank you for allowing me to spend time with you this afternoon. There are resources at the end of the PowerPoint. People always ask me, "How can I learn more," and
there are some really practical ideas there. I hope you picked up some practical ideas that you can apply to working with the team that you were thinking about. Thank you.


Defining Facilitation

Starts at 00:11

Mind Maps

Starts at 07:02


Starts at 38:24

Design Considerations

Starts at 1:19:34

Facilitation References

Starts at 1:27:31